TCEEH research focuses on addressing human exposure to relevant air pollutants, and the biological responses that follow this exposure. Due to population growth, industrialization, and urbanization, the Israeli public is exposed to high levels of air pollutants, experiences deteriorating urban air quality, suffers from reduced visibility and from increasing frequency of photochemical smog episodes, and faces aggravating warming and drought due to both urban heat island effects and climate changes. The global trend of improved standards of living and Israel’s distinct national situation (political, military, economic, etc.) and unique geo-meteorological conditions contribute, and oftentimes synergistically exacerbate, environment-health relationships. Moreover, on top of these dynamic conditions the close proximity between people (the receptors) and pollutant sources gives rise to unique circumstances where Israeli people are routinely exposed to mixtures of anthropogenic and biogenic, fresh and aged, organic and inorganic, urban and rural/agricultural, and toxic and harmless respirable pollutants. The TCEEH, through its research cores, addresses these issues by promoting research on priority pollutants and in relation to aggregate exposure scenarios.